Using the sol-gel technique, a variety of nano-size/structured materials like alumina and zirconia (coatings), Na & N doped TiO2, and Titanium carbide (40-140 nm) , cadmium sulphide thin films etc. have been synthesized at AMPRI. Sol-Gel chemistry has been used to enhance surface area and, wherever applicable, co-gelation used to improve homogeneous mixing of the reactant phases. Magnesium and nickel titanates have also been prepared by co-gelation of sols. By evolving an innovative methodology, it has been possible to utilize oxiditic gels for making aluminium nitride and titanium nitride at 900oC and SiC at 1200oC. After optimization of condensation and peptization reactions, stable alumina and zirconia sol suitable for the development of nano-structured coating can be obtained. The alumina and zirconia coatings developed on different steel and Al alloy substrates have been found to improve the corrosion resistance substantially in chloride bearing neutral and acidic solutions. Oxidation resistance in air and air/salt environments at elevated temperatures has also been observed to increase as a result of the coatings. CdS nano-particles (5-20 nm) have been synthesized employing controlled precipitation technique using suitable capping agent as well as micro-emulsion technique. Carbon (~40 nm) nanoparticles have been synthesized by burning clarified butter. MnOOH nanorods and Mn2O3 nanoparticles catalyst by organic synthesis, CO oxidation techniques have also been systhesized. Nano-crystalline thin film of cadmium sulphide has been grown using chemical bath deposition technique. CdS thin films have also been synthesized using different complexing agents. Zirconia (20-40 nm) nanoparticles have been synthesized using micro-emulsion technique. The effect of surfactant composition on phase transformation has also been studied.